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SQL – Operators


SQL Operators are reserved words , which are used to perform arithmetic, logical and comparison operation in SQL queries.

Broadly we can divide SQL operators in three parts:

  1. Arithmetic Operators
  2. Logical Operators
  3. Comparison Operators

Arithmetic Operators :

Used to perform arithmetic operation in SQL queries.

Operators Descriptions Examples
+ Used to add to two operands Select 20 + 40;
Used to subtracts right hand operand from left hand operand. Select 30 – 23;
* Used to multiply both operands values. Select 20 * 5;
/ Used to divides left hand operand by right hand operand. Select 50 / 10;
% It will return the reminder value. Select 10 % 2;

 

Logical Operator :

Used to perform logical operation.

Operator Description
ALL Used to  compare a value to all the values in another set.
AND Used to filter data with multiple condition in where clause.
ANY Used to compare a value to any applicable value in the list of values.
BETWEEN  Used to search for values among a given range of values.
EXISTS Used to search for the presence of a row in a specified table that meets certain criteria.
IN Used to compare a value to a value in list of values in a specified set.
LIKE Used to compare a value to similar values using wildcard operators( _ , %) .
NOT  Reverses the meaning of the logical operator with which it is used. Eg: NOT EXISTS, NOT BETWEEN, NOT IN, etc.
OR Used to combine multiple conditions in an SQL statement’s WHERE clause.
IS NULL Used to compare a value with a NULL value.
UNIQUE Used to searches every row of a specified table for uniqueness.

Comparison Operator :

Used to compare two values.  Suppose values of a and b are 20 and 40 in following example.

Operator Description Example
= Used to examine if both values are equal. (a=b) is not true
!= Used to examine if both values are not equal. (a!=b) is true
< > Condition is true if values are not equal. (a<>b) is true
> Condition becomes true when a is greater than b. (a>b) is not true
< Condition becomes true when a is less than b. (a<b) is  true
>= True if a is greater than or equal to b. (a>=b) is not true
<= True if a is less than or equal to b. (a<=b) is true
!< Examines that a is not less than b. (a!<b) is not true
!> Examine that a is not greater than b. (a!>b) is true

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